Outline for writing a systematic review proposal

Nevertheless, such measures, however stringent are undermined by their coercive nature that restricts smoking in public arenas but provides no incentive to curtail smoking at the household level. Mishra, S.

cochrane systematic review protocol example

Nevertheless, the literature need not specify programs or program components as these may vary across studies. The diseases are not isolated in specific regions; instead, they can afflict all smokers everywhere at any time.

Prospero protocol template

Trends in bidi and cigarette smoking in India from to , by age, gender and education. Firstly, the impacts on income translate to hardships that afflict the family particularly for the married individuals. For the reinforcement factors, the review will consider studies that identify the social influence measures and the pressure to quit, support to quit, and the norms regarding smoking. Notwithstanding the impacts on individual income, smoking also affects other people who have a connection to the smoker ranging from relatives to governments. While the government must make efforts to mitigate smoking and its impacts on the national budget, such methods ought to be productive. The long-term expenses of such policies present a huge burden despite the compensation that one may obtain from their insurer in the event of occurrence of the insured risk. Types of outcome measures Elementary smoking behaviour measures: this includes self-made reports of smoking status during the intervention for instance recent ex-smoker. This data is even more engrossing in the light of effects on income bearing in mind that low-income earners smoke more than their well-paid counterparts. The methods entail antidepressant use, nicotine replacement therapy, cessation classes, support groups, personal advice, and counseling. The Cochrane Handbook outlines some questions to ask yourself before refining your question: Cochrane Handbook, Chapter 5. Morbidity and mortality: the review is useful for informing individuals and groups on the benefits of not smoking. N, Dikshit, R. Also, self-reported cigarette use Smoking Prevention: Community Interventions 12 details such as the number of cigarettes smoked daily will be useful components of the included studies. Other impacts of smoking on income may be relatively indirect and therefore not easily noticeable.

Cardinale, A. Comparative studies should explicate the relative impacts of the interventions with a vivid description of the efficacy of the community efforts and their utility over or weakness against other measures.

This step necessitates a description of the results of individual studies and will be included in a separate section of the review entitled "Findings of individual Studies.

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For instance, insurers charge more for policies issued to smokers than the non-smokers due to the risks that are associated with smoking particularly with regard to health ASH Scotland PROSPERO's registration form includes 22 mandatory fields and 18 optional fields which will help you to explain every aspect of your research plan.

Beyond the above explanation, other expenses accrue due to smoking and these can be demonstrated using the direct relationship between the habit and certain activities or Smoking Prevention: Community Interventions 5 consequences.

While the affirmative efforts are indubitably warranted to salvage the health and social welfare of the individual, coercive measures such as tax increases are often unproductive when used alone.

Methods of the Review Search Strategy The study will draw on resources that describe and explicate issues that are related to smoking and the efforts that have been made in different populations to reduce the habit.

Smoking Prevention: Community Interventions 8 In the lungs, for instance, nicotine has been shown to impede apoptosis including that which is induced by chemotherapy and affect proliferation of cancerous cells by stimulating the release of the epidermal growth factor thus activating the Ras-Raf-ERK cascade.

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